What are dental implants?

If one or more of your teeth are missing, there are a number of ways to replace them. An alternative to bridges, partials or complete dentures may be dental implants. Implants are used to replace missing roots and support artificial replacement teeth. They are comfortable and look like natural teeth.

A dental implant is an artificial root made of titanium metal. It is inserted into the jawbone to replace the root of the natural tooth. An artificial replacement tooth is attached to the implant. The implant acts as an anchor to hold the replacement tooth in place.

Dental implants are not right for everyone and the dentist will evaluate the condition of your jawbone to determine if you are a good candidate for the procedure. Before deciding to get a dental implant there are certain things you need to know about the procedure and the advantages and disadvantages of dental implants.

If the dentist determines you are a good candidate for the procedure an individualized treatment plan will be developed for you.





If you are a good candidate for an implant procedure implants provide many advantages that dentures or crowns don’t. They include:

  • Improved appearance
  • Clearer speech
  • Convenience
  • Durability
  • Easier eating
  • Improved comfort
  • Improved confidence
  • Improved oral health

Unlike removable dentures, dental implants are fused with the jawbone making them permanent and the implants look and feel like real teeth. Dental implants can help restore confidence and self esteem and with proper care implants can last a lifetime.

Dental implants eliminate many of the problems associated with dentures. There is no need to worry about dental implants slipping within the mouth affecting the clarity of speech or your ability to eat your favorite foods, including corn on the cob that is a common problem with dentures. And the permanence of dental implants eliminates the need for adhesives and the pain associated with ill-fitting dentures or the irritation that dentures may cause.

Dental implants don’t affect surrounding teeth like a bridge and implants allow easier flossing improving your overall oral hygiene.





While dental implants provide many advantages there are also drawbacks too. Disadvantages associated with dental implants include:

  • Cost
  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Nerve damage
  • Pain and swelling
  • Rejection of the implant

Because dental implants are a surgical procedure there are risks associated with them. Surgery can cause pain and swelling as well as a chance of bleeding. Infection is another risk associated with dental implant surgery.

Occasionally the jawbone may not accept the implant. Implant rejection is rare but it is another risk associated with the surgery.

The dentist will evaluate your oral health as well as your medical condition to determine if you have any conditions that may prevent you from getting dental implants. Conditions that may prevent you from being a good candidate for implants include:

  • Alcoholism
  • Cancer
  • Radiation treatments to jaw
  • Severe or uncontrolled gingivitis
  • Smoking
  • Uncontrolled diabetes



Types of implants


Endosteal implants are surgically implanted directly into the jawbone. Once the surrounding gum tissue has healed, a second surgery is needed to connect a post to the original implant. Finally, an artificial tooth is attached to the post individually, or grouped on a bridge or denture.

Subperiosteal implants consist of a metal frame that is fitted onto the jawbone just below the gum tissue. As the gums heal, the frame becomes fixed to the jawbone. Posts, which are attached to the frame, protrude through the gums. As with endosteal implants, artificial teeth are then mounted to the posts.




The procedure

If you are having an implant, your dentist may refer you to a dental specialist who has further training in this area. Specialists who place implants are periodontists or oral and maxillofacial surgeons, also called oral surgeons. Specialists who place crowns, bridges and dentures on implants are called prosthodontists.

If you are in good general health, have healthy gums and have enough bone in the jaw to hold an implant, dental implants might be right for you. If your jawbone has shrunk or if it has not developed normally, you may be able to have a bone graft to build up the bone. A bone graft is a way of adding new bone to your jawbone. Your dentist or dental specialist will tell you if bone grafting can be done.

Your dentist or specialist will carefully examine your mouth and take x-rays of your head, jaw and teeth to find out if dental implants are right for you.




During the first stage of surgery, your dentist or specialist will put a dental implant into your jawbone beneath the gum tissue. The gum tissue is then stitched back into place. As the tissue heals, the implant will bond with the bone and attach to the gum. It can take several months to heal.










During the second stage of surgery and once the tissue is healed, your dentist or specialist will attach an abutment to the implant. An abutment is a post that connects the replacement tooth to the implant. In some cases, the first and second stage of implant surgery may be done in one single stage.








Single tooth restoration: crown 

An artificial replacement tooth is made and your dentist or specialist attaches it to the abutment. It may take several appointments to properly fit the replacement tooth to the abutment.








Multiple tooth restoration: bridge 

When replacing several teeth or all of your teeth, a fixed bridge is anchored to your dental implants. A bridge is a dental restoration that replaces one or more missing teeth by spanning an area that has no teeth. The bridge is held firmly in place by dental implants on each side of the missing tooth or teeth.




Caring for your implant

Because dental implants are placed in the jawbone, artificial replacement teeth attached to implants look and act much like natural teeth. Like natural teeth, implants need to be kept clean using a toothbrush and floss. Your dentist will show you the proper cleaning procedure for implants.

Regular dental checkups are important so your dentist can make sure that your bite is right and that your implants are not loose.

What you should know

  • Several visits to your dentist or dental specialist may be needed until the process is done.
  • Checkups will be scheduled during the following year so your dentist can be sure your implants are working properly.
  • You will need to take very good care of your implants.
  • Implants can cost more than other kinds of replacement teeth and might not be covered by your dental plan. But in most cases this is a one-time cost, unlike other kinds of tooth replacement procedures.
  • Although rare, possible complications due to dental implants include bleeding, infection, numbness or injury to nearby muscles or the sinus cavity. In some cases, the implant may not be successful because it didn’t bond to the bone.